Tree of Savior Forum

[Damage Guide] The big formula, modifier types, and how they interact!

I thought it’d be good to have a compilation of all the skills that actually scale thanks to having a percentual modifier in their calculations. At first I just wanted to list all the skill modifiers , listed or hidden, but when figuring out how all of them interacted, I decided to expand upon it.

The Formula

After much testing, and kindly simplified by user Tarocha here on the forums, and another user by the name of KDBA on reddit, damage in Tree of Savior is calculated like this :

(((((Skill Attack + (Effective Attack * (100% - Level Penalty)) + (random(0% ... 100%) * Magic Amplification)) * (100% + Base Modifier)) - (Effective Defense + Elemental Resistance)) * (100% + (0 or 50% if crit)) + (0 or Critical Attack) + Extra Elemental Attack + Enemy Specific Damage) * (100% + Skill Modifier) * (100% + Common Modifier) * (100% + Target Modifier) * (100% + Enhance Modifier) + Bonus Damage

All modifiers are converted from total figures to additive figures for the formula. For example, Meteor is 400%, so the additive value is +300%. All modifiers within a same tier are additive to one another and are added to the default value of “100%”. Here’s a list of all the existing modifiers (and related formulas):

Effective Attack
Your attack power after any modifiers. Usually this is just the value in your F1 Character Window, and as such, anything that visually updates that window wont be listed here. There are modifiers that alter the base attack stat in some way without showing this in the character window however. They can both be flat values or percentual modifiers. Examples are Pommel Beat on stunned targets, Cloaking’s attribute, or Shield Charge.

Level Penalty
When you’re more than 5 levels below an enemy, a penalty will start decreasing your attack in relation to the level of the enemy you hit by 2.3% per level past 5 levels, so 9 levels below is 2.3 * 5 = 11.5% decreased attack versus that monster.

Skill Attack
Easy, the raw value listed on the skill’s tooltip. Very few things modify this directly, but there’s a few, such as Effigy and Cassis Crista.

Magic Amplification
This is a very simple stat. It acts like a “Maximum attack” range for magic attacks and that’s pretty much it (on top of, of course, existing “Maximum Attack” increases. It’s still a different stat). It randomly adds between 0% and 100% of your Magic Amplification to your attack.

Base Modifiers
These modify the total damage a skill would do before defense is subtracted. They are quite potent, as they can cause your damage to vastly exceed an enemy’s defense and create a much larger number for the rest of the formula to calculate with.
Modifiers like this include Split Arrow’s “Bounced Arrow Attack”.

Effective Defense
The defense of the enemy after any modifiers are applied to it. When no modifiers are in effect, this is simply the defense of the monster. The defense modifiers can be both flat values or percentual modifiers. The order these debuffs are applied in only matters based on the final debuff applied. If the final debuff was a flat reduction, it does that last, applying any percentual modifiers first.

(Defense * Percentual Modifier) + Flat Modifier

If the final debuff was a percentual reduction, it does that last, applying any flat modifiers first.

(Defense + Flat Modifier) * Percentual Modifier

Elemental Resistance
If a monster has any (usually this is only through Resist Elements), it will be added here when you cast an attack with the respective element. For example, if you have 100 Lightning Resist, only Lightning-based skills (Electrocute and Zaibas) will add said Lightning Resist to your defense when they are used on you. Simple non-elemental attacks but where the attacker has “Lightning Attack” stats are not added here, but along with the Lightning Attack value itself further into the formula. See “Extra Elemental Attack” below.

Critical Hit
When you land a critical hit, you simply add 50% to the formula above and then add your Critical Damage. As magic can’t crit, this will just always be +0% + 0 for those skills. Sorry mages!

Extra Elemental Attack
This is where all your Elemental Attack stats are added, after crits, before everything else. These all add on to each other if you have multiple types of elements and are always applied, no matter what the attack is (even on DoT effects like Bleeding!).
This Elemental Attack is already multiplied by Elemental Bonuses on its own, so yes, having Fire Elemental Attack and then casting a Fire skill on a Ice enemy will make it multiply by 150% once for itself, then again for the whole skill.
Elemental Resistances and Resistance buffs/debuffs are accounted for again here too, just like the bonus being applied twice. The full formula for Elements is :

((Elemental Attack - (Elemental Resistance +- Modification)) * Elemental Modifier) (+ ...)

Where (+ …) is a repeat of the first part for every element you have Elemental Attack for.

Enemy Specific Damage
You know the ones. Additional damage to Beast-Type enemies and the like. Very simply added straight on here, after crits, before everything else, just like Elemental Attack.

Skill Modifier
These are the modifiers that are directly listed on the skill tooltips right in front of the skill’s raw attack value.
Modifiers of this tier include Meteor, Stone Shot, and Claymore.

Common Modifier
The main bulk of the modifiers. A lot of things in here will end up being added together in the game as they are rather common.
Modifiers of this tier include Elemental Properties, the Missile penalty, hidden modifiers like Ice Bolt and Cartar Stroke, certain attributes like Quick Cast : Magic, and so on.

Target Modifier
The modifiers here are all dependant on what you hit, what type of attack you hit it with, and so on. This includes all of the Armor-type modifiers, but also some Size-related modifiers and certain attributes There’s no real distinction between these modifiers and common modifiers, I just had to come up with something to seperate them :wink:

Enhance Modifier
While this mainly includes the obvious “Enhance” attribute almost all offensive skills have, there are a few outliers that still work additively, such as Fencer’s Aggression attribute.

Bonus Damage
Additional bonus damage. They are just extra damage values that usually even appear as a separate yellow number to tell you they’re there, complete with skill name of what caused it. They never get multiplied and are added way at the end of everything
These include buffs like Blessing and Concentration.
The increase in damage caused by Crossbow Mastery may fall under this category too.

Additional Attacks
“But these aren’t even in the formula!” Well, no, they aren’t, because these pesky little guys have their own very slightly different formula.

(Additional Attack + Extra Elemental Attack) * (100% + Common Modifier + Target Modifier) + Bonus Damage

Very similar isn’t it? You just drop defense, magic amplification, critical hits and all that out of the equation, replacing Skill/Base Attack with the “Additional Attack” from the tooltip.
These hits are caused by buffs such as Enchant Fire and Sacrament.

Enhance Modifiers wont be mentioned here, as they will simply never apply due to only being triggered by normal attacks. (This includes Fencer’s Aggression, which also only affects skills)

Attacks of this type are ALWAYS Magic-type. As such, they will do 50% increased damage against Ghost-armor.

Oddly enough, these attacks add Common and Target modifiers together, causing them to be additive (for example, hitting a ghost / dark monster while sacrament is active)

Pet Mechanics
Pets have their own stats, and for skills or attacks that use these stats, the formula follows the normal one for the most part, with the exception that Base Modifiers and Skill Attack are moved from before defense to after critical.

((Effective Pet Attack * (100% + Base Modifier)) + Skill Attack) * (100% + Skill Modifier) * (100% + Common Modifier) * (100% + Target Modifier) * (100% + Enhance Modifier)

Where Effective Pet Attack

Pet Attack - (Defense + Defense Modifier) * (100% + (0 or 50% if crit)) + (0 or Pet's Critical Attack)

The only known attacks that are based on a Pet’s stats currently are the basic non-skill attack, and Rush Dog.
Snatch, Coursing and Retrieve will use the player’s stats and thus follow the normal formula.

Pet Skills will always do Strike-type damage. A pet’s basic attack is type-less.

If you find anything that does not adhere to the formula I created and others perfected, then be sure to say so! I’ll see what’s up as soon as I can.
Many thanks to people who made rough formulas for a lot of separate things, as well as those who helped simplify it! Sometimes it was just piecing things together.

Attack Modifiers

Effective Attack = Attack * (100% + Modifier)


  • Cloaking “Physical Damage” Attribute :


  • Subzero Shield “Counter Attack” Attribute :
    +50% [* Attribute Level] of Shield’s Defense value


  • Pommel Beat :
    +200 on Stunned status

  • Double Slash :
    +200 on Bleeding status


  • Stomping Kick :
    +Boot’s Evasion


  • Shield Charge :

Skill Attack Modifiers

Skill Attack = Skill Attack * (100% + Modifier)


  • Cassis Crista “Peltasta Shield Attack Enhance” Attribute :
    +40% [* Attribute Level] for Umbo Blow, Rim Blow, Shield Lob, Umbo Thrust

  • Cassis Crista “Rodelero Shield Attack Enhance” Attribute :
    +20% [* Attribute Level] for Shield Charge, Targe Smash, Shield Push, Shield Shoving and Shield Bash

  • Cassis Crista “Offensive Attack Enhance” Attribute :
    +15% [* Attribute Level] for Butterfly and Shooting Star


  • Effigy :
    +[60%~130%] to [158%~256%] depending on Skill Level

Defense Modifiers


  • Basic [Missile] Attack :
    -10% [* Arrow Stacks] Phys. Defense (Up to 5)

  • Full Draw “Decreased Defense” Attribute :
    -10% [* Attribute Level] Phys. Defense


  • Umbo Thrust :
    -100% All Defense (Armor Break Status)


  • Skull Swing :
    -100% All Defense (Armor Break Status)


  • Warcry :
    -8 [+ 2 * Skill Level] Phys. Defense


  • Shield Push :
    -15 [* Skill Level] Phys. Defense


  • Deprotected Zone :
    -2 [+ 0.7 * Skill Level] [+ SPR] All Defense for 4 [+ 2 * Skill Level] [+ 1 * Attribute Level] seconds

  • Deprotected Zone “Sword Attack” Attribute :
    -0.5 [+ 0.5 * Skill Level] [* Weakened Defense Stacks] All Defense. (Up to 10 times). Stacks are applied when hitting an enemy within Deprotected Zone with a Sword.

  • Deprotected Zone “Enhance” Attribute :
    -1 [* Attribute Level] All Defense. Applies after Weakened Defense stacks.


  • Monstrance :
    -6.2 [+ 2.4 * Skill Level] [+ SPR * 0.4] Phys. Defense for 20 [+ Attribute Level] seconds


  • Hexing :
    -12 [+ 3 * Skill Level] [+ SPR * 0.3] Magic Defense for 14 [+ Skill Level] seconds.


  • Resist Elements :
    -25 [+ 5 * Skill Level] Magic Defense for 60 [+ 5 * Skill Level] seconds.

Base Modifiers


  • Rush Dog :
    +100% (See Pet Mechanics above)


  • Split Arrow :
    +100% on bounced arrow


  • Synchro Thrusting
    +Skill Attack
    Note : This skill adds its own skill attack a second time AFTER the Pierce attribute below, both on the Spear and Shield part. IE ((100 + 220) * 1.1) + 220 - Defense for spear portion

  • Synchro Thrusting “Pierce” Attribute :
    +10% [* Attribute Level] on Spear attack
    -10% [* Attribute Level] on Shield attack

Skill Damage Modifiers

Quarrel Shooter

  • Stone Shot :


  • Rush Dog :


  • Claymore :


  • Divine Machine Arrow :


  • Cannon Shot :

  • Shootdown :

  • Siege Burst :

  • Cannon Blast :


  • Covering Fire :

  • Headshot :

  • Snipe :

  • Penetration Shot :


  • Meteor :

Rune Caster

  • Rune of Destruction :


  • Damballa :


  • Astral Body Explosion :

Common Modifiers


  • Full Draw :
    +50% on Leather armor

  • Heavy Shot :
    +50% on Plate armor

  • Twin Arrows :
    +50% on Cloth armor

  • [Missile] Attacks (applies to subclasses too) :
    -10% to ?% on Medium
    -15% to ?% on Large and Extra Large
    Note: Penalty goes down by ?% per Bow Upgrade Level (+) for the Large penalty, and ?% for the Medium Penalty.


  • Time Bomb Arrow (explosion) :
    +50% on Plate armor

  • Steady Aim :
    +5% [+ Skill Level] for Missile attacks for 20 seconds.

Quarrel Shooter

  • Stone Shot :
    +50% on Plate armor


  • Volley Fire (Unconfirmed Tier) :


  • Energy Bolt :

  • Energy Bolt “Additional Sleep Damage” Attribute :
    +40% [* Attribute Level] on Sleep status

  • Earthquake :
    +100% on Lethargic status

  • Quick Cast “Magic” Attribute :
    +10% [* Attribute Level] for Magic attacks for 5 [+ 2 * Skill Level] seconds


  • Cryomancer “Freeze Speciality” Attribute :
    +10% [* Attribute Level] from Lightning Attacks on Frozen Status

  • Ice Bolt :


  • Joint Penalty “Poison”, “Earth” and “Electric” Attributes :
    +10% [* Attribute Level] from Poison/Earth/Lightning Attacks on Linked enemies.


  • Freezing Sphere :

  • Rain :
    +35% from Lightning Attacks


  • Two-handed Swords (Any class able to use them):

  • Two-handed Spears (Any class able to use them):


  • Wagon Wheel :

  • Cartar Stroke :


  • Stomping Kick :
    -25% to +Infinite% (Depending on height from ground).
    Note: Normal jumping height is roughly +0%. A last second practically on the ground cast is roughly -25%.


  • Epee Garde :
    +20% [* Skill Level] when landing a Critical Hit.


  • Dragoon “Two-handed Spear Mastery : Big Game Hunter” attribute :
    +4% [* Attribute Level] on Large
    +2% [* Attribute Level] on Extra Large


  • Headbutt “Additional Damage” attribute :
    +50% from Strike attacks for 10 seconds.


  • Attack Soul (Out of Body) :
    Note: Uses Magic Attack and goes through the normal main formula as any skill, but does not include Bonus Damage.


  • Smite :
    +200% on Demon and Mutant type

Elemental Properties

  • Fire :
    +50% on Ice
    -50% on Fire

  • Ice :
    +50% on Fire
    -50% on Ice

  • Lightning :
    +100% on Ice
    -50% on Lightning and Earth

  • Poison :
    +50% on Earth
    -50% on Poison

  • Earth :
    +50% on Lightning
    -50% on Poison

  • Holy :
    +100% on Dark
    -25% on Holy (kToS Only)

  • Dark :
    +100% on Holy
    -25% on Dark (kToS Only)

  • Soul (kToS Only) :
    +25% on Dark and Holy
    +50% on Soul

Target Modifiers


  • Oghma Gauntlet :
    +25% on Leather armor with Strike attacks

  • Demonas Gauntlet :
    +25% on Plate armor with Slash attacks


  • Snatching “Airborne Enemy Damage” Attribute:
    +20% [* Attribute Level] from Strike and Slash attacks for skill duration.


  • Flare Shot :


  • Lethargy “Additional Damage” Attribute :
    +20% [* Attribute Level] from Strike attacks for 30 seconds.


  • Frozen Status :
    +100% from Strike attacks.


  • Umbo Blow :
    +150% on Staggered status.

  • Shield Lob :

  • High Guard “Umbo Blow Speciality” and “Rim Blow Speciality” Attribute :
    +150% [+ 20% * ( Attribute Level - 1 )] for Umbo Blow and Rim Blow during High Guard


  • Cross Guard :
    +100% from Pierce attacks for 5 seconds.

  • Sky Liner :
    +100% on Bleeding status


  • Synchro Thrusting :
    +100% on Counterattack


  • Cleave :
    +150% on Stunned status
    +50% from Slash attacks for 5 seconds

  • Seism :

  • Pouncing :
    +200% at a 2% chance on Stunned status


  • Pierce :
    +100% on Medium
    +200% on Large and Extra Large

  • Pierce “Continuous Attack” Attribute :
    +300% on Extra Large (Replaces +200% above)

  • Spear Lunge :
    +70% from Pierce attacks for 6 seconds


  • Targe Smash “Frozen Stone” Attribute :
    +20% [* Attribute Level] on Frozen or Petrified Status.

  • Slithering “Additional Damage” Attribute :
    +20% [* Attribute Level] from Strike attacks for 10 seconds.

  • High Kick :
    +100% from Strike attacks for 10 seconds.


  • Earth Wave :

  • Doom Spike :


  • Lunge :
    +50% from Slash attacks for 4 seconds.

  • Preparation :
    +100% on next Pierce attack.


  • Gae Bulg :
    +15% from Physical attacks for 5 [+ 0.5 * Skill Level] Seconds


  • Hexing “Darkness” Attribute :
    +10% [* Attribute Level] from Dark Element attacks.

Armor Modifiers

  • Slash :
    +50% on Cloth armor
    -25% on Plate and Ghost armor

  • Strike :
    +50% on Plate armor
    -25% on Leather and Ghost armor

  • Pierce :
    +50% on Leather armor
    -25% on Cloth and Ghost armor

  • Magic :
    +50% on Ghost armor

Enhance Modifiers


  • [Skill] “Enhance” Attribute
    +1% [* Attribute Level]


  • Hoplite “One-handed Spear Mastery : Medium-sized Hunter” Attribute :
    +4% [* Attribute Level] on Medium when using a 1H Spear.


  • Fencer “Rapier Mastery: Aggression” Attribute :
    +3% [* Attribute Level] on Pierce skills when using a Rapier, without Shield.

Bonus Damage


  • Concentrate :
    +4 [+ 1.5 * Skill Level] [+ 2 * Attribute Level] for 4 [+ 1.5 * Skill Level] Attacks


  • Blessing :
    +15 to +170 Damage for 10 to 180 Attacks (Depending on Skill/Attribute Level)

To do:
-Find all skills with unlisted modifiers, of course!
-Figure out which kind of modifier EVERY attribute and EVERY modifier is.

If you know skills with unlisted modifiers, please list them below, I’ll add them right away!

Credit to Tarocha and KDBA for simplifying the formula!
Credit to Dynemanti for the original damage formula thread
Credits to ricegnat for further testing in his elemental damage thread

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Is the lethargy + Earthquake exactly 2x? Or is it 1.5x?

Edit: NVM its 2x, and I believe if the enemy is poison type (resists) it’ll be 1.5x.
Eg. Lethargy adds an additional 100% scaling to earthquake and stacks additively with elemental type.

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Freezing sphere has the same formula as Ice bolt.


Still not sure about Frost Cloud, there are some mobs it hit less than normal though those mobs are not ice element.

Good to know, added Sphere and will add a part for buff-related modifiers soon.

Did you take off all equips and attributes that give max attack+, magic amp, and any elemental attack+? Don’t forget Staff Mastery.

If you’re 5 levels below a monster (or more) defense of those monsters is increased by 10% roughly, per level lower. So if you’re using Cloud on a level 150 mob while you’re 145, their defense counts as 110% of the value on ToSBase

Ah no my mistake, the mob just has abnormal high magic resistance, all of my skills deal much less dmg on it. Frost Cloud work normal.
You can read quick cast dmg formula here: Quick Cast damage formula?

That should explain it properly then.

If anyone knows what the Missile modifier on all 3 enemy sizes is that’d be great, since I’m kinda stuck for most archer skills till I figure out more about the penalty.

The paladin skill Smite has an unlisted modifier when used against demon or mutant type monsters.

200% damage modifier when hitting these enemy types.

This is what I datamined from the client files:

Suffers a 25% damage penalty against M size enemies.
Suffers a 50% damage penalty against L size enemies.
Suffers a 50% damage penalty against XL size enemies.

I can’t guarantee that it’s correct but maybe it will help you.

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I figured out missile’s interaction with other modifiers and how Oblique’s Bounce modifier works.

Let’s just say the bounce is calculated in a really stupid spot in the formula, and ignores missile penalty outright, making the bounce BETTER than the main hit with a low +'d bow

I wonder if only bow weapons have such penalties or if they exist in different forms for other weapons like in Ragnarok. Or perhaps they thought adding this would make up for missiles not taking armor type into account.

Bows seem to be the only weapons with direct penalties based on monster size but all monsters have an armor type and different armor types are strong/weak to different weapon types.

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Completely reworked the thread since modifiers have a lot of interesting interactions with each other. They’re not always multiplicative and the order you place them in does matter to some extent.

Created a much more consistent layout and by now you can dump literally anything into the given formula and get the right damage value. So if you’re looking for hidden modifiers or testing where an attribute goes, have at it!

can you explain critical attack work ? what is stronger +200 Critical Power or +200 Attack Power ?

In the formula critical attack is added straight to the damage after the critical damage is calculated. So 200 attack power would be stronger. Plus it would have the benefit of always being applied, whereas critical attack is only applied on critical hits.

Added Smite and Sky Liner.

Sky Liner on bleed is a T0 +100% mod. Very potent, as it ends up more than doubling your final damage output unless a monster has 0 defense.

No kidding it’s potent…
If a mob has 400 Defense while I have 300 Attack and Sky Liner with 368, the damage on that mob is normally 268. On a bleeding target this becomes 936. That’s over three times the original damage BEFORE any other modifier!

C3 scout suddenly isn’t so bad anymore now, since those bounced shots are ridiculously powerful.

You listed the smite modifier as +100% it’s +200%. Triple damage.

Ah, alright. Your post said 200% so I assumed it was +100%, since most people here tack another 100% on it to make it look like an increase (especially when talking about 150% mods, or 50% increases)


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Yeah, sorry. I realized my initial post didn’t say plus.

Nice! Few things to point out:

I’m pretty sure [Element] Attack bonuses go in before what you call T1 modifiers, together with the defense. (Check my post in the linked posts about those). I didn’t even realize there were modifiers that affected the skill base damage alone, so that’s neat to know.

Sacrament does not work like Blessing, it works more like Enchant Fire and grants you an extra hit, which can then proc Blessing again. Check my post for the explanation of that.

My findings with Arde dagger:

Added fire damage from Arde dagger receives %attribute bonuses from Oblique Shot. I assume it will do so for other skills as well.

However, added fire damage from Arde dagger does NOT get multiplied by 1.5 on crits. It always adds the flat 150 fire damage (or more depending on %attributes)